# numpy.invert¶

numpy.invert(x, /, out=None, *, where=True, casting='same_kind', order='K', dtype=None, subok=True[, signature, extobj]) = <ufunc 'invert'>

Compute bit-wise inversion, or bit-wise NOT, element-wise.

Computes the bit-wise NOT of the underlying binary representation of the integers in the input arrays. This ufunc implements the C/Python operator ~.

For signed integer inputs, the two’s complement is returned. In a two’s-complement system negative numbers are represented by the two’s complement of the absolute value. This is the most common method of representing signed integers on computers [1]. A N-bit two’s-complement system can represent every integer in the range to .

Parameters: x : array_like Only integer and boolean types are handled. out : ndarray, None, or tuple of ndarray and None, optional A location into which the result is stored. If provided, it must have a shape that the inputs broadcast to. If not provided or None, a freshly-allocated array is returned. A tuple (possible only as a keyword argument) must have length equal to the number of outputs. where : array_like, optional This condition is broadcast over the input. At locations where the condition is True, the out array will be set to the ufunc result. Elsewhere, the out array will retain its original value. Note that if an uninitialized out array is created via the default out=None, locations within it where the condition is False will remain uninitialized. **kwargs For other keyword-only arguments, see the ufunc docs. out : ndarray or scalar Result. This is a scalar if x is a scalar.

binary_repr
Return the binary representation of the input number as a string.

Notes

bitwise_not is an alias for invert:

>>> np.bitwise_not is np.invert
True

References

 [1] Wikipedia, “Two’s complement”, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two’s_complement

Examples

We’ve seen that 13 is represented by 00001101. The invert or bit-wise NOT of 13 is then:

>>> x = np.invert(np.array(13, dtype=np.uint8))
>>> x
242
>>> np.binary_repr(x, width=8)
'11110010'

The result depends on the bit-width:

>>> x = np.invert(np.array(13, dtype=np.uint16))
>>> x
65522
>>> np.binary_repr(x, width=16)
'1111111111110010'

When using signed integer types the result is the two’s complement of the result for the unsigned type:

>>> np.invert(np.array([13], dtype=np.int8))
array([-14], dtype=int8)
>>> np.binary_repr(-14, width=8)
'11110010'

Booleans are accepted as well:

>>> np.invert(np.array([True, False]))
array([False,  True])

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numpy.bitwise_xor

numpy.left_shift