testing.assert_array_equal(x, y, err_msg='', verbose=True, *, strict=False)[source]#

Raises an AssertionError if two array_like objects are not equal.

Given two array_like objects, check that the shape is equal and all elements of these objects are equal (but see the Notes for the special handling of a scalar). An exception is raised at shape mismatch or conflicting values. In contrast to the standard usage in numpy, NaNs are compared like numbers, no assertion is raised if both objects have NaNs in the same positions.

The usual caution for verifying equality with floating point numbers is advised.


The actual object to check.


The desired, expected object.

err_msgstr, optional

The error message to be printed in case of failure.

verbosebool, optional

If True, the conflicting values are appended to the error message.

strictbool, optional

If True, raise an AssertionError when either the shape or the data type of the array_like objects does not match. The special handling for scalars mentioned in the Notes section is disabled.

New in version 1.24.0.


If actual and desired objects are not equal.

See also


Compare two array_like objects for equality with desired relative and/or absolute precision.

assert_array_almost_equal_nulp, assert_array_max_ulp, assert_equal


When one of x and y is a scalar and the other is array_like, the function checks that each element of the array_like object is equal to the scalar. This behaviour can be disabled with the strict parameter.


The first assert does not raise an exception:

>>> np.testing.assert_array_equal([1.0,2.33333,np.nan],
...                               [np.exp(0),2.33333, np.nan])

Assert fails with numerical imprecision with floats:

>>> np.testing.assert_array_equal([1.0,np.pi,np.nan],
...                               [1, np.sqrt(np.pi)**2, np.nan])
Traceback (most recent call last):
Arrays are not equal

Mismatched elements: 1 / 3 (33.3%)
Max absolute difference: 4.4408921e-16
Max relative difference: 1.41357986e-16
 x: array([1.      , 3.141593,      nan])
 y: array([1.      , 3.141593,      nan])

Use assert_allclose or one of the nulp (number of floating point values) functions for these cases instead:

>>> np.testing.assert_allclose([1.0,np.pi,np.nan],
...                            [1, np.sqrt(np.pi)**2, np.nan],
...                            rtol=1e-10, atol=0)

As mentioned in the Notes section, assert_array_equal has special handling for scalars. Here the test checks that each value in x is 3:

>>> x = np.full((2, 5), fill_value=3)
>>> np.testing.assert_array_equal(x, 3)

Use strict to raise an AssertionError when comparing a scalar with an array:

>>> np.testing.assert_array_equal(x, 3, strict=True)
Traceback (most recent call last):
Arrays are not equal

(shapes (2, 5), () mismatch)
 x: array([[3, 3, 3, 3, 3],
       [3, 3, 3, 3, 3]])
 y: array(3)

The strict parameter also ensures that the array data types match:

>>> x = np.array([2, 2, 2])
>>> y = np.array([2., 2., 2.], dtype=np.float32)
>>> np.testing.assert_array_equal(x, y, strict=True)
Traceback (most recent call last):
Arrays are not equal

(dtypes int64, float32 mismatch)
 x: array([2, 2, 2])
 y: array([2., 2., 2.], dtype=float32)